Classical Conditioning & Pavlov’s ExperimentThis is a featured page



Topic: Classical Conditioning & Pavlov's Experiment

Posted by: Gina

Key Terms:

  • Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian conditioning.
  • Behaviorism: The view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1) but not with 2).
  • Unconditioned Response (UCR): In classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as, salivation when food is in the mouth.
  • Unconditioned stimulus(UCS): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally -naturally and automatically- triggers a response.
  • Conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, the leanred reponse to a previously natural conditioned stimulus (CS).
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
  • Acquisition: Initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neurl stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reenforced response.
  • Extinction: A diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stiumulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reenforced.
  • Spontaneous recovery: The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
  • Generalization: The tendency, once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to ellicit similar responses.
  • Discrimination: In classical conditioning, the learning ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

Summary:

A Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov used classical conditioning to make an experiment. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
Pavlov designed an experiment to test classical conditioning with the involvement of saliva by conditioning dogs. Dogs not only salivated when meat powder was present (UC), but also salivated in the presence of the lab technician who normally fed them. Pavlov predicted that when meat was present, the stimulus became associated with food and caused salivation.
Pavlov tried another experiment on dogs by ringing bells to call the dogs for food. After a few repetitions, the dogs began to salivate when the bell rang. Thus, bell was a conditioned stimulus that was respondent to the unconditioned

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Latest page update: made by ginayoo , Dec 9 2008, 2:44 AM EST (about this update About This Update ginayoo Edited by ginayoo


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