Paranoid Personality Disorder 2010

Disorder Family
Personality DisorderParanoid Personality Disorder 2010 - The Neuron
Cluster A: paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal

Definition and Descriptions
People with paranoid personality disorder have long-term, widespread, and unwarranted suspicions that other people are hostile, threatening, or demeaning (2). These beliefs are stubbornly maintained without any rational reasons. Patients
with PPD are not delusional.
Most of the patients are in touch with reality except when they misinterpret others’ motivations or intentions.

People with paranoid personality disorder don’t trust other people. Even friendly gestures are often interpreted as being malevolent. Therefore, these patients are unable to form close relationships with others.

Symptoms - A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent - beginning by early adulthood - present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four or more of the following - suspicious of others that they are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her - preoccupied with unjustified doubts about trustworthiness of friends - not willing to confide with others because he/she is worried that the information will be used maliciously against him or her - try to read hidden meanings into benign remarks - bearing grudges ex: unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights - perceives attacks on his/her reputation that are not apparent to others - quick to react angry - recurrent suspicions without justification
- does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia

Causes No one knows the direct cause of paranoid personality disorder (PPD), but there are some hints. It could be genetically passed down as more cases of PPDs are found in families that have one or more members who suffer from schizophrenia or delusional disorder (2). Some behaviorist therapists explain that PPD might be learned behaviors. They suggest that such behavior might be traced back to childhood experiences. For example, children who are exposed to adult anger with no way to predict the outbursts develop paranoid ways of thinking in an effort to cope with the stress (2).

Treatments The primary approach to treat paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is psychotherapy. Therapists face challenges as the patients mistrust them for successful treatment. They may actively resist cooperating with others who try to help them. It is usually helpful for the therapist alone to overcome a patient’s resistance. Group therapy that includes family members or other psychiatric patients isn’t successful as the patients are suspicious of others. It is important for therapists to gain the trust of PPD patients. They must be careful to hide as little as possible from their patients. Furthermore, supportive therapy which helps the PPD patients to analyze their problems is preferable.

Related Disorders
Cluster A: Paranoid | Schizoid | Schizotypal
Cluster B: Antisocial | Borderline | Histrionic | Narcissistic
Cluster C: Avoidant | Dependent | Obsessive-Compulsive

Case Study

Paranoid Personality Disorder 2010 - The Neuron

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